The notion of hematosis comes from the Greek word haimátōsis. The term refers to the process that allows oxygenate the blood .
Through hematosis, a gas exchange between the blood of the living being and the external environment that allows the expulsion of carbon dioxide and the fixation of oxygen Through the breath The characteristics of this procedure depend on each species.
In the mammals As the human being , hematosis is pulmonary . The exchange takes place between alveoli and the blood capillaries : due to the difference in concentration, the oxygen in the alveolar air passes into the blood, where it joins the hemoglobin present in the red blood cells and reaches the body's cells. Carbon dioxide from the blood, in turn, enters the alveoli and is then removed.
It is important to keep in mind that hematosis is essential for breathing . The oxygen that is inhaled moves from the pulmonary alveoli to the blood through the capillaries, while the carbon dioxide from the blood in the capillaries passes into the air of the alveoli and is exhaled. Thus a balance is achieved: a high amount of carbon dioxide or oxygen is toxic.
In the case of fishes , the mollusks and other aquatic species, hematosis occurs in the gills . The insects , meanwhile, they perform hematosis via tracheal tubes . Other organisms, like some worms , resort to cutaneous hematosis . There are even animals that develop a main hematosis and another complementary hematosis, using two mechanisms.