The first step to publicize the meaning of the term colonization is to proceed to determine its etymological origin. In doing so we will discover that it emanates from Latin and specifically from the union of the following words: the noun “colonus”, which is synonymous with “inhabitant”; the verb "izare", which can be translated as "convert into"; and the suffix "-tion", which is equivalent to "action and effect."
Colonization is the action and effect of colonizing (establish a colony, fix the dwelling of those who will cultivate it on a plot). The term is used in various fields to indicate the occupation or population of a space (colonized) by a group (colonizer), either human or another species.
In the context of human beings, colonization usually refers to settlement of a population (the settlers) in an uninhabited area . The concept is used as justification to support the right to the occupation of a supposedly virgin territory, which implies ignoring a previous occupation by other groups (native or indigenous).
The settlers, in this context, consider that the original occupation is insufficient and, therefore, it is justified to impose a supposed superiority (cultural, religious, ethnic or of any other type).
An example of colonization took place in the XV century , when the Spaniards began the conquest of America . The American territory had long been inhabited by various indigenous groups, but the Spanish decided to colonize it through weapons and evangelization.
Among the multiple consequences that the colonization of America had, the following stand out:
• New diseases arrived for the New World for which the inhabitants of that continent were not prepared to face. And the same happened on the contrary, because the Spaniards and Europeans, then, had to suffer pathologies unknown to them until that moment.
• Native Americans were treated as subjects of the Spanish Crown.
• The obligation to make Native Americans faithful to Christianity was imposed and that meant that all kinds of actions were carried out to achieve it. Thus, while some evangelists opted to strengthen ties with those to show that they were close to their problems or needs, other methods were more violent.
• There was an exchange between Spain and America of all kinds of products and elements that did not know one or the other until then. Thus, the former allowed them to know the vine, rice, lemon, sugar or silk while the latter did the same with corn, potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco or cocoa.
In addition, we must not forget that this colonization was also a great step towards the globalization of the world economy.
You can talk about economic colonization to name the unequal exchange that occurs between a powerful country and another that has a dependency relationship. Generally, the underdeveloped nation sends raw materials, while the richest returns more expensive manufactured goods.
It is known as space colonization to the hypothetical process that would lead human beings to create permanent and self-sufficient colonies in space. This colonization was born in the science fiction books but it is currently a possibility in which several countries work.