He intelligence quotient , also know as I.Q , is a number that results from the performance of a standardized evaluation that allows measuring the cognitive habilyties of a person in relation to your age group. This result is abbreviated as CI or IQ , for the English concept of intelligence quotient .
As a standard, the average IQ in an age group is considered to be 100 . This means that a person with an IQ of 110 is above average among people his age. Typically, the standard deviation of the results is 15 or 16 points, since the tests are designed so that the distribution of the results is approximately a normal distribution. It is considered as gifted to those who are above 98% of the people.
It would be helpful to define previously what intelligence is. For the term intelligence There are many definitions. The one established by the American Psychological Association ensures that it consists of the ability through which individuals are able to understand complex things and to face and resolve certain complications through reasoning; according to the capacity of each person it is said that he is more or less intelligent than another.
It should be clarified that according to this definition the intellectual abilities of each individual vary at the same time as the problems they face.
The Mainstream Science on Intelligence proposed a second definition, corroborated by more than 50 researchers. It postulates that intelligence includes the skills of reason, solve problems, think abstractly, plan .
Intelligence is not about the ability to learn from books, only, but also the ability to resolve conflicts and know what needs to be done at all times.
In order to establish the intellectual faculties of a person, several types of tests must be performed. These tests include problems with words or numbers, shapes and designs, in order to define the individual capacity of the individual's IC.
On the other hand, it is necessary to define the emotional intelligence to understand the differences between ICs of different individuals. EI includes skills such as perception of feelings (own and the emotions of the environment), use of emotions (mastering feelings in order to facilitate cognitive activity), understanding of emotions (understand the language of feelings and recognize how they evolve over time) and emotion control (ability to manage one's feelings based on needs, to achieve the goals that have been proposed).
According to some studies developed in the University College London In order to know if the IC remains indelible over time or if it is modified, it has been found that the value of a person's CI changes significantly as it grows; in some cases its value increases and in others it decreases.
It was also discovered that changes in IC related to language , are found associated with variations in a certain region of the brain, more precisely in the left motor cortex. For its part, in relation to the tests nonverbal It is known that it may be due to an increase in gray matter that resides in the anterior cerebellum (which controls the sensory and motor part of the organism).
It is also known that there are differences in IC between men and women, this does not clearly mean that one is more intelligent than another, but that they have cognitive habilyties diverse; the same occurs in people belonging to one and other cultures, because beyond social learning there is a certain predisposition to develop the IC in a specific way.
The history , meanwhile, shows that the scores in a given evaluation and in a population determined have tended to rise. Therefore, the tests that measure the IQ must be updated periodically so that the previous standards are maintained.
This phenomenon is known as Flynn Effect , thanks to the studies of James Flynn . This New Zealander in political matters was the one who warned that IQ scores rose across the globe an average of three points per decade. Among the explanations given by the specialists, there is a higher quality education, healthier nutrition and a greater preponderance of families with a reduced number of members.